PBless Research














PBless is a research consortium investigating the long-term reliability of lead free components in printed circuit boards.











Recent Publications

“Reliability of printed circuit boards containing lead-free solder in aggressive environments”. M.M.Torbati & J.Swingler, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics. DOI: 10.1007/s10854-010-0150-7





Dr. M.M.Torbati




MSc Projects: “Vibration studies on lead-less solder joints in PCBs”


PhD Projects: “Tin whisker growth prediction in harsh operating environments”